Free Software

Software Engineering with FOSS and Linux

OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi

The last two days I’ve been attending the Software Freedom Kosova Conference 2009, which was really interesting and had quite an impressive turnout. In the conference I presented our work for the deployment of some XO-1 laptops, part of the One Laptop Per Child project, to some students of the High School of the Greek village of Sminthi. You can checkout the project’s Wiki for some ongoing work; here I will present the paper we submitted to the Conference.


OLPC Deployment in Sminthi

Xenofon Papadopoulos, Athanasios Priftis, Pavlos Hatzopoulos, Theodoros Karounos

Re-public Online Magazine, Greek Free/Open Source Software Community, TEI of Athens

xenofon@edu.teiath.gr, priftis@re-public.gr, phatzopoulos@re-public.gr, karounos@re-public.gr

Abstract. From September 2009 students in the Greek high school of Sminthi will use OLPC XO-1 laptops inside and outside the classroom. In this paper we present our methodology for the OLPC deployment, ranging from the creation of a human network of teachers, members of the local community, social researchers and IT specialists, to the acquisition of the laptops, the development of applications and educational content, and the technical support of the project. We describe the holistic approach used to implement the project, and highlight the role of communities as the means to bring together and mobilize end users and technical experts. We present the use of Free Software as a fundamental component of such an approach, and demonstrate how it can be used to address both technical and non-technical aspects of the implementation. Finally, we present our plans for further development and future OLPC deployments.

1. Introduction

Modern educational approaches promote blended learning, collaboration and multiple educational resources. The Greek Pedagogical Institute, designing and overseeing the educational process in the Greek public schools of Primary and Secondary education, advocates the creation of “an open and attractive educational environment, through the application of alternative pedagogical approaches and the development of teaching practices based on communication (student-centered approach, collaborative teaching)”[1]. Furthermore, the Pedagogical Institute distinguishes the notion of educational concepts to that of the book’s content, requiring teaches to deliver the first by any means necessary, using the official book as a reference. However in many Greek schools a traditional approach – use of only the official book, recited by the teacher – is still prevalent. The special conditions at the high school of Sminthi expose the shortcomings of that approach, and offer a fertile ground for the adoption of the new teaching methods.

Located on the remote, mountainous region of Xanthi, in Greece, the high school of Sminthi has approximately 140 students enrolled, but attendance varies each year. The lessons are exclusively in Greek. Students, however, are all members of the Muslim minority living in Greece, with their mother tongue being either Pomak or Turkish (or a mix of both), and have graduated from elementary schools where lessons are given in Turkish and Greek. Thus their grasp of the Greek language is weak. The language barrier alone imposes great obstacles to the education of the students.

In 2008, two high school teachers, Dionysia Psychoyos and Vasilis Rigas, explored alternative teaching approaches that would help them transcend the language barrier. Their subjects, Mathematics and Computer Programming respectively, seemed promising since they are based on concepts, abstractions and symbolisms that depend less on a firm grip of the spoken or written language. They had already ventured in collaborative learning approaches when they encountered Thanasis Priftis and Pavlos Hatzopoulos, editors of the Re-public on-line magazine, who suggested exploring the possibilities offered by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative.

2. The One Laptop Per Child initiative
2.1 General

The mission of the One Laptop Per Child organization is “to create educational opportunities for the world’s poorest children by providing each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop with content and software designed for collaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning”[2]. Its current focus is on the development, construction and deployment of the XO-1 laptop, an inexpensive notebook computer initially intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world, to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to “explore, experiment and express themselves”[2]. It is shipped with a stripped-down version of the Fedora GNU/Linux operating system and a GUI and set of applications called Sugar, that is intended to help young children collaborate.

The OLPC project involves several organizational and technological decisions. We could, very broadly, sum them up as follows:

  • Innovative, worldwide compatible, children friendly, hardware.

  • Free / Open Source educational operating system and applications influenced from the constructionists movement and other learning theories.

  • A deployment plan focused on decisions and funding of the centralized government.

  • A third-world development theory based on education as an answer to poverty.

There has been a well documented critique[3] on all of these issues and several more. Again, a brief layout:

  • Developing countries have different kind of basic priorities (clean water, better nutrition, infrastructures, need for teachers, schools and so on). The OLPC project exploits their resources without taking under consideration local needs, networks, and practices.

  • Although around 800.000 XO1 have been shifted to different developing countries, there is a wider consensus that smaller orders are very difficult to be placed and they were definitely not encouraged or planned.

  • Local teachers’ participation during the projects deployment has been low, campaigning on the wider educational changes needed in order to apply the learning and technological innovations of OLPC in schools has been insignificant.

  • The OLPC project has fallen short on the Free / Open Source tool promise by, among other things, inviting Microsoft to install a trimmed-down Windows XP version on the laptop.

2.2 The case of Greece

In Greece, as well as elsewhere, a group of school teachers, academics and open source developers formed an initiative to promote the adoption of OLPC in the Greek primary and secondary education. The initiative promoted the use of the OLPC tools and created tutorials for the development of educational applications on the platform. Furthermore, it proceeded to develop educational content based on concepts included in the school books, including material on astronomy, physics and mathematics[4].

The original model of deployment as conceived by the OLPC was based on large scale orders by the central government and distribution to the students by the Ministry of Education. As the original model failed to deliver, our team attempted to exploit what it perceived as the legacy of the OLPC project:

  • A fresh, better documented, initiative-based discussion on new educational practices, stemming from a reinforced need to look upon new paradigms of learning.

  • A better, more affordable, technology built on F/OSS principles and tools, creating a new market of educational applications.

  • A concept focused on motivating local actors, one worth building local communities upon.

Based on the above, the Re-public team sought an alternative model that would not depend on the central government, but on local communities facing their own, specialized needs. As part of these efforts, the team in cooperation with the Union of African Women has in the past organized an evening of “play and experiments” with the OLPC, aiming to support the free distribution of XO-1 laptops to the children of immigrants, and has issued an open call to the community for cooperation in projects related to the OLPC. The case of the OLPC deployment in the high school of Sminthi emerged as a result of these actions.

3. The OLPC Deployment in Sminthi

The project aims to provide XO-1 laptops to the third grade students of the high school of Sminthi, along with a set of applications (“activities” is the term used by the OLPC to highlight their interactive and educational nature) fully translated in Greek. The laptops will belong to the school, however the students will keep them for an entire year, both inside and outside the classroom, at the end of which they will be returned to the school.

The project does not plan to use the laptops as a means to deliver the official educational material already distributed in the classroom, i.e. it does not plan to employ it as an e-book reader of the official school books or as a platform for the existing educational software. Although both are possible, the main goal of the project is to give the teachers and students a platform to develop their own activities, as they see fit. Also the project aims to aid the teachers to develop new content, based on the exclusive needs of the class, and deliver it to the students in any way they deem proper. We should note that, regardless of the need to translate all the applications in Greek, according to the Sugar HCI guidelines the interface of most activities is based on icons and interactive graphical elements, reducing the effects of the language barrier.

The project is based on the creation of a human network with a broad and mixed background, centered around the local school community. Participants of the network deliver their own special skills to the project; communication, coordination and cooperation among the team members are essential. Furthermore, a major goal of the project is communicating and delivering its results to a broader circle of researchers, teachers and IT practitioners not involved with the Sminthi case, thus attempting to expand its human network, discover synergies and form links with other communities.

3.1 Roadmap

The following roadmap outlines the history of the project so far and highlights the creation and growth of the human network as the core factor of the project:

Figure 1 - Roadmap of the OLPC Deployment in Sminthi

Figure 1 - Roadmap of the OLPC Deployment in Sminthi

  • The local teachers met the Re-public team, and discuss the conditions in the classroom of the Sminthi high school. The Re-public team suggests using OLPC as an experiment.

  • Theodoros Karounos, coordinator of the Greek OLPC initiative and member of the Re-public Board of Directors works with the team to publicize its idea and seeks links with communities and experts from several disciplines to realize the project. Furthermore, funding is aquired to purchase 30 XO-1 laptops, part of which will be given to the high school of Sminthi.

  • The Re-public team contacts members of the Greek Free/Open Source Software (F/OSS) Community (ELLAK) to handle the technical aspects of the project, which involve the configuration of the XO-1 laptops, the translation of selected activities into Greek and the development of new applications.

  • The project is presented at a workshop of the F/OSS Conference (http://conf.ellak.gr/2009/) at the National Technical University of Athens. In the workshop several activities around the OLPC in Greece are presented. Apart from the core team members, participants in the workshop include high school teaches and independent open source programmers. During the workshop, an elementary school teacher requests additional XO-1 laptops for use in his own school.

  • The local teachers, having explored the capabilities of the XO-1 laptops and the Sugar platform running on them, request the development of two new applications that will help introduce the students to the concepts of 1st and 2nd degree polynomials and the properties of simple geometrical shapes. Xenofon Papadopoulos, a member of the Greek F/OSS community working for the Technical Educational Institute of Athens, agrees to develop the polynomials activity for the Sugar platform.

  • Αrlen Dilsizian, a researcher in social anthropology, gets involved with the project and decides to live in Sminthi for one year and study the impact of the OLPC deployment to the classroom, the broader educational process, and the students’ life in general on behalf of the Re-public team.

  • The Re-public team, in cooperation with the Greek Research and Technology Network (GR-Net), organizes an event where the 30 laptops are tested. In the same event, a prototype of the new polynomials activity is presented for public trial and comments, and a roadmap for further action is laid out.

  • The Greek F/OSS community finalizes the translation Sugar, Etoys and selected activities into Greek. A wiki, describing the entire project and on the development of the new activity, is created at http://olpc-gr.wikia.com. After several iterations of improvements, the activity is uploaded to the central repository of Sugar and announced to the community, which offers suggestions to improve it and better integrate it with the entire Sugar ecosystem.

  • The Re-public team organizes the integration of the various components (laptops, configuration, network connectivity, translated and newly developed activities) and lays out the plans for the deployment.

As Figure 1 demonstrates, the entire project is revolving around the local school. It begins with the students’ needs, as perceived and understood by the local teachers. It is co-ordinated by the Re-public team, its technical aspects are implemented by the Greek F/OSS Community, and it is evaluated by an independent researcher of social anthropology, who will live and work with the children for the duration of the project. Subsequently, the results will be processed by the teachers and delivered to the rest of the team, which will provide feedback and technical support in a cyclic, iterative process.

3.2 The Role of Free / Open Source Software

Open source software has been a core ingredient of the project in every step from its conception to its implementation. An important pedagogical goal of the project is to encourage the high school children – and other IT practitioners, such as university students and teachers – to explore the platform and its applications and possibly develop their own content. The open nature of the platform and all its tools makes it possible to look at the current code, learn from it, modify it and use it as the basis for further development, unencumbered of both technical obstacles and licensing issues. Furthermore, the community-based development and support model practiced by the open source movement makes it possible to realize the project by drawing upon the resources of local and remote communities such as the Greek F/OSS and the Sugar Development communities.

4. Conclusion

The project of the OLPC deployment in Sminthi does not attempt to introduce IT technologies or alter the educational approach in the Greek Primary and Secondary education. Nor does it care about the digital representation of existing material. It is a project revolving around the students and the local teachers, their exclusive needs as they, themselves, understand them. It advocates and supports the creation of ad-hoc applications and content, and monitors the projects’ impact on the teachers’ and students’ both inside and outside the classroom. It is based on a new model of action: a model of small, low-cost deployments, supported by unofficial communities forming a human network with a broad and mixed multidisciplinary background, centered around local representatives and end-users to address real, local needs.

5. Future plans

Future plans of the project include the actual deployment, that will take place at the beginning of September 2009. Of particular interest to the project is the evaluation of the deployment’s effects, both inside and outside the classroom, which will take place during the entire year. Finally, the project aims to create links that will result to an active community which will advocate and promote the use of free software in education.

6. References

[1] Sotirios Glavas, Quality of Education and Pedagogical Institute, http://www.edugate.gr/ek-ty/01-06-09-13, 2009

[2] One Laptop Per Child Association, One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a low-cost, connected laptop for the world’s children’s education, http://laptop.org/en/vision/index.shtml, 2008

[3] Lee Felsenstein, Problems with the OLPC approach, http://www.fonly.typepad.com/fonlyblog/2005/11/problems_with_t.html, 2005

[4] Theodoros Karounos, Web Site of the OLPC at the University of Patras / CTI, http://www.karounos.gr/blog/?p=32, 2007

August 30, 2009 - Posted by | Free Software | , , , ,

65 Comments »

  1. […] OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi It is shipped with a stripped-down version of the Fedora GNU/Linux operating system and a GUI and set of applications called Sugar, that is intended to help young children collaborate. […]

    Pingback by Links 01/09/2009: Opera 10 and KDE 4.3.1 Released | Boycott Novell | September 2, 2009 | Reply

  2. […] η παρουσίασή του δημοσιεύτηκε στο blog του με τίτλο ”OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi“. Comments […]

    Pingback by To OLPC στη Σμίνθη » Μία πρώτη παρουσίαση του εγχειρήματος στη Σμίνθη | September 3, 2009 | Reply

  3. […] text of his presentation is now posted to his blog. It is titled “OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi“. Comments […]

    Pingback by OLPC in Sminthi » Sminthi project presented at Kosovo Floss conference | September 3, 2009 | Reply

  4. Blog review cheap notebook and sell from amazon.
    Easy find your interest notebook

    Comment by EasySearchNotebook | October 15, 2009 | Reply

  5. […] η παρουσίασή του δημοσιεύτηκε στο blog του με τίτλο “OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi“. […]

    Pingback by Μία πρώτη παρουσίαση του εγχειρήματος της Σμίνθης στο Κόσοβο « republic OLPC | March 25, 2010 | Reply

  6. […] text of his presentation is now posted to his blog. It is titled “OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi“. […]

    Pingback by Xenofon Papadopoulos – The delpoyement of OLPC in Sminthi « OLPC en | April 26, 2010 | Reply

  7. The American Cancer Society points out that colorectal cancer
    is a leading cause of cancer related deaths in the U.
    There is a way to live healthily and to balance out you p –
    H levels without medication and without trips to the doctor.
    The team used computer models to find significant differences in biology, or biological markers that distinguish blood samples from cancer patients with
    those who do not have cancer.

    Comment by Florine | April 22, 2013 | Reply

  8. What a stuff of un-ambiguity and preserveness of valuable experience regarding
    unpredicted feelings.

    Comment by wordpress.com | May 29, 2013 | Reply

  9. Hello my friend! I want to say that this article
    is amazing, great written and include almost all significant infos.

    I would like to see more posts like this .

    Comment by Saccharomycesboulardii.net saccharomyces boulardii | June 11, 2013 | Reply

  10. Hi! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with Search Engine Optimization?
    I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very
    good success. If you know of any please share. Many thanks!

    Comment by Andrew | July 12, 2013 | Reply

  11. Most people consider those plants live butterflies for sale unsightly
    weeds, but tthe UCI made no reference to this at its meeting aheadd of the
    third Manor of the year.

    Comment by butterfly release california | October 8, 2013 | Reply

  12. Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no back up.

    Do you have any methods to prevent hackers?

    Comment by scanmaster elm 2.1 full version | November 25, 2013 | Reply

  13. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get three e-mails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove people from that service?
    Cheers!

    Comment by MerrellCouponCode | November 28, 2013 | Reply

  14. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s both equally educative and interesting, and let me
    tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue
    is something that too few folks are speaking intelligently about.
    I’m very happy that I found this in my hunt for something
    concerning this.

    Comment by http://cigarrilloselectronicos43.webnode.es | December 5, 2013 | Reply

  15. My spouse and I stumbled over here from a different page and thought I might as well check things out.
    I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to
    looking over your web page repeatedly.

    Comment by papa pear hack | December 26, 2013 | Reply

  16. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost
    on everything. Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option?
    There are so many choices out there that I’m totally overwhelmed ..
    Any ideas? Thank you!

    Comment by download terraria for android | December 31, 2013 | Reply

  17. After checking out a few of the blog posts on your site, I seriously appreciate your technique of writing a blog.
    I added it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon.
    Please check out my web site as well and let me know what you think.

    Comment by call duty ghost keygen | January 12, 2014 | Reply

  18. This design is spectacular! You most certainly know how to keep a reader amused.

    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog
    (well, almost…HaHa!) Excellent job. I really loved what you had
    to say, and more than that, how you presented it. Too cool!

    Comment by daily quotes | January 18, 2014 | Reply

  19. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this article and also the rest of the website is really good.

    Comment by auditor | January 19, 2014 | Reply

  20. I’m extremely impressed with your writing abilities and also with the
    structure for your weblog. Is that this a paid theme or did you
    customize it your self? Either way keep up the
    excellent high quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one today..

    Comment by Dating | January 30, 2014 | Reply

  21. I’d like to find out more? I’d love to find
    out more details.

    Comment by read more | January 31, 2014 | Reply

  22. Instead, a comprehensive security program should be proactive instead of reactive.

    You may not even be aware that is the case when
    you receive an overpayment. While modern technology certainly enhances business security programs, the human element is just as important.

    Comment by corporate security | February 13, 2014 | Reply

  23. I seldom create responses, but i did some searching and
    wound up here OLPC Deployment in the Greek village of Sminthi
    Free Software. And I actually do have a few questions for you if you tend not to mind.
    Is it just me or does it look like a few of these
    comments look as if they are coming from brain dead folks?

    :-P And, if you are writing at other places, I’d like to follow everything new you have to post.
    Could you list of all of all your shared pages like your linkedin profile,
    Facebook page or twitter feed?

    Comment by PayPal money hack | February 19, 2014 | Reply

  24. Hello! Quick question that’s entirely off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?

    My website looks weird when viewing from my iphone4.

    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might
    be able to correct this problem. If you have any recommendations,
    please share. Appreciate it!

    Comment by www.backtrack-group.com/index.php | February 21, 2014 | Reply

  25. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It truly helpful & it helped me out
    much. I hope to offer one thing again and aid others like you helped me.

    Comment by xt genix and zx90 | February 25, 2014 | Reply

  26. Wonderful article! We will be linking to this particularly
    great content on our website. Keep up the good writing.

    Comment by how much is lipo | February 26, 2014 | Reply

  27. Major online games publisher Bigpoint has revealed new
    information, and an in-game footage trailer, for their upcoming MMO, Drakensang Online.
    You’ll be able to play numerous classes that range
    from mercenaries to rangers to battlemages, burgler, elementalists,
    metamages and alchemists among many others. We definitely recommend that you discover and experience it for yourself when
    you log in to play. Die Basisversion dieser Video Games im Internet ist kostenlos, durch Einzahlung einer geringen Beitragszahlung ist es öfter so, das
    dem Spielenden das Leben im Online Game vereinfacht wird.

    Comment by DrakenSang Online Hack | February 26, 2014 | Reply

  28. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I came across this board
    and I to find It really helpful & it helped me out a lot.

    I am hoping to give one thing again and aid others like you aided me.

    Comment by ANGULO vs ALVAREZ | March 3, 2014 | Reply

  29. Howdy! This article could not be written much better! Going through this article
    reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept
    talking about this. I’ll send this post to him.
    Fairly certain he’s going to have a very good read.

    I appreciate you for sharing!

    Comment by Odette | March 6, 2014 | Reply

  30. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this
    post and also the rest of the website is really good.

    Comment by Gratuit Riot Points | March 13, 2014 | Reply

  31. Make an effort to stay away from their editorial pages.
    Learning the principals of attraction marketing and how to leverage the internet isn’t that complicated.

    I think she has it in her though and Usher might
    just be the guy to make it happen.

    Comment by http://www.Kununu.com/de/be/berlin/it/agt-international2 | March 18, 2014 | Reply

  32. Coins is the online shop clash cans noth 44with buy gems clash of clans gems thrilled iOS Games clientele.
    Somee of the attention-grabbing features of Clash oof Clans hack.
    You just have to enter the number of builders you have made.
    Playing clash clans north 44 the gameWhile into thhe game, players
    cann choose as the main focus and the Wizard Towers once you are eligible to get these.

    Comment by Clash Of Clans Gold Hack Cydia | March 18, 2014 | Reply

  33. Make a complete list of gold-making quests, how to complete and their corresponding rewards.
    Drakensang Online is a true MMO that offers you the chance
    to meet thousands of players on your server to team up or battle
    in Pv – P. Check out this Drakensang The River Of Time Ancient Temple Puzzle Walkthrough, it
    will show you how to do the Ancient Temple
    Puzzle in Drakensang: The River Of Time. Die Basisversion dieser Video Games im Internet ist kostenlos, durch Einzahlung einer
    geringen Beitragszahlung ist es öfter so, das dem
    Spielenden das Leben im Online Game vereinfacht wird.

    Comment by Jackson | March 19, 2014 | Reply

  34. Is it not worth the gamble if there is potential to save anywhere from $10,000 or $40,000 on the deal.
    Generation Y people like to do things at their own
    pace, which is quite often fast. The immensely known scope today in Indian real estate is of international standard homes.

    Comment by playa del carmen homes for sale | March 21, 2014 | Reply

  35. Howdy! Would you mind if I share your blog with
    my facebook group? There’s a lot of folks that I think would really enjoy your content.

    Please let me know. Cheers

    Comment by Les Brasiers de la Colère Télécharger Le Film | March 23, 2014 | Reply

  36. whoah this weblog is great i like reading your articles.
    Keep up the great work! You know, many people are hunting
    around for this info, you could help them greatly.

    Comment by window cleaners | March 23, 2014 | Reply

  37. Normally I don’t learn article on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to check out and do it!
    Your writing taste has been surprised me.
    Thank you, very great article.

    Comment by stocks and bonds | March 23, 2014 | Reply

  38. Nicely put. Kudos!

    Comment by bathroom renovations how to | March 29, 2014 | Reply

  39. Thanks. Numerous stuff.

    Comment by kitchen and bathroom renovations | March 30, 2014 | Reply

  40. I always emailed this website post page to all my contacts,
    for the reason that if like to read it next my contacts will too.

    Comment by Abonnement Xbox Live Gold Gratuit Points Microsoft | April 2, 2014 | Reply

  41. This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am actually happy to read
    all at one place.

    Comment by South El Monte seo services -amazon | April 7, 2014 | Reply

  42. Bienvenue sur titanfallbeta.weebly.com,
    Sur ce site, vous trouverez la BETA exclusive du célèbre jeux TitanFall.

    Je me suis procuré cette Béta à l’événement TitanFall à Londres et je souhaite vous la partager sur mon site pour que vous puissiez avoir un avant-goût de ce jeux monstrueux.

    Pour parler de cette Béta développé par Respawn Entertainment :
    – Disponible sur PC, Xbox ONE, Xbox 360
    – Mode multijoueur jouable sur quatres Map inédites
    – Toutes les armes et Titans incluses
    – Aucuns problèmes de connexion avec les serveurs
    – Beta disponible en Français, Anglais et Allemand
    – Plus d’informations sur ma vidéo ( ci-dessous ).
    titanfall beta, titanfall beta fr, titanfall beta ps3, titanfall beta pc, titanfall beta gratuit, titanfall
    beta gratuite, titanfall beta xbox, titanfall beta ps4,
    télécharger beta de titanfall, télécharger la beta
    de titanfall fr, comment avoir la beta de titanfall, beta de titanfall gratuit, tuto beta tintanfall fr,
    télécharger la beta de titanfall sur pc, télécharger la beta de titanfall sur ps3, tuto titanfall beta fr, titanfall, titanfall gameplay fr, titanfall
    gameplay, titan fall beta, installer la beta
    de titanfall, avoir la beta de titanfall, obtenir la beta de titanfall, titanfall beta fr, beta titanfall, beta titanfall fr, beta titanfall
    tuto, astuces titanfall

    Comment by titanfall beta ps4 | April 8, 2014 | Reply

  43. While installing the driver you need to double click
    on thhe downloaded fils annd follow instructions
    to install the driver. If you have any tips or trjcks that
    worked, please share them with us so tnat they
    bebefit others as well. Postal address: Repair-and-Secure, Pacific Business Centre, P.

    Comment by windows 7 Drivers | April 8, 2014 | Reply

  44. These unique kitchen gadgets may be right uup your alley.
    But because males have such a large area to contend with, electrolysis
    really isn’t a viable hairr removal process. Where once one recharge gave my shhaver enough “juice” for four or five three-minute shaving
    sessions, now I’m lucky to get two shaves a week,
    annd sometimes I need to shve more than that.

    Comment by best electric shaver | April 9, 2014 | Reply

  45. This is very attention-grabbing, You are an overly professional
    blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to searching for extra of your magnificent post.
    Additionally, I have shared your web site in my social networks

    Comment by Wilhemina | April 15, 2014 | Reply

  46. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills and also
    with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays.

    Comment by Anna | April 19, 2014 | Reply

  47. Warm days are the norm in the big city but it is very common for the temperature to drop into the
    low 60’s at night. If you are lost someone will have already spotted you, so the key is not
    to appear that you are lost. They truly thought of
    everything and catered to their guests. You can
    also join a team to compete with friends and make it an even more exciting and
    adventurous experience.

    Comment by Beth | April 21, 2014 | Reply

  48. Good day! I just wish to offer you a big thumbs up for the great info you have here on this post.
    I’ll be coming back to your site for more soon.

    Comment by website | April 22, 2014 | Reply

  49. I am extremely inspired with your writing talents as smartly as with
    the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid subject
    or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the
    nice quality writing, it’s uncommon to see a nice blog
    like this one these days..

    Comment by office chairs | April 22, 2014 | Reply

  50. Excellent weblog right here! Also your site so much up fast!
    What web host are you the usage of? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink to
    your host? I want my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

    Comment by carpet cleaning putney | April 26, 2014 | Reply

  51. Right here is the perfect blog for everyone who wants to find
    out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard
    to argue with you (not that I personally will need to…HaHa).
    You certainly put a brand new spin on a subject
    which has been written about for decades. Great stuff, just great!

    Comment by Modular Kitchen in Chennai | April 29, 2014 | Reply

  52. Article writing is also a excitement, if you know afterward you
    can write otherwise it is difficult to write.

    Comment by adobe photoshop cs5 free download full version | May 7, 2014 | Reply

  53. The next mouse I recommend is the Microsoft Side – Winder.
    The size of these packets and how much information they contain
    is based on the format and how many bits of data.
    FPS mice are usually those which allow for quick and efficient features like on-the-fly DPI switching.

    Comment by razer naga | May 14, 2014 | Reply

  54. Greetings from California! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to
    check out your site on my iphone during lunch break.
    I enjoy the info you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get
    home. I’m surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, very good blog!

    Comment by protein powder | May 28, 2014 | Reply

  55. That is a good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere.
    Short but very precise info… Thanks for sharing
    this one. A must read article!

    Comment by music marketing and promotion | June 16, 2014 | Reply

  56. My coder is trying to convince mee to move to .net from
    PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs.
    Butt he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type
    on a variety of websites for about a year and am
    concerned about switching to another platform. I have heard excellent things about
    blogengine.net. Is thjere a way I can transfer all my
    wordpress posts into it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    Comment by Jere Ruehle | September 1, 2014 | Reply

  57. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after looking
    at some of the articles I realized it’s new to me.
    Nonetheless, I’m definitely pleased I stumbled upon it and
    I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

    Comment by fireplace | September 9, 2014 | Reply

  58. I have to say that for the past few of hours i have been hooked by the impressive posts on this blog. Keep up the wonderful work. post, thanks for your help in advance
    Visit my website, Please

    Comment by contractor | May 22, 2015 | Reply

  59. Have you see this cool trick donald trump Clash of Clans gem hack http://www.myfreegems.com (GRD367hprT)

    Comment by My Free Gems | August 23, 2015 | Reply

  60. This is a great way to make money presidential election Clash of Clans hack http://www.myfreegems.com (GRD367hprT)

    Comment by My Free Gems | September 4, 2015 | Reply

  61. Fantastic web site. Lots of useful information here. I’m sending
    it to several buddies ans additionally sharing in delicious.

    And certainly, thank you to your sweat!

    Comment by college football pics | October 1, 2015 | Reply

  62. great article

    Comment by plakat | March 1, 2016 | Reply

  63. dude this is great!

    Comment by Isabell Basley | March 6, 2016 | Reply


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: